To develop a set of objectives and describe strategies for reaching these objectives. Planning should precede forecasting the outcomes of various plans. If none of the plans are forecast to produce satisfactory outcomes, new plans can be developed, followed by new forecasts. Armstrong (1983) discusses how forecasting contributes to the planning process. Extensive research has shown that formal planning is useful for decision-making groups, and that the better it is done, the more useful it is. Armstrong (1982a) provided a meta-analysis of this research, and the review was updated in Armstrong (1990).