Forecasting in which a prespecified set of instructions is used in forecasting individual time series that are part of a larger group of time series.  The forecasting method may be predesignated by the user or may rely on automatic forecasting.  If the group has a hierarchical structure (see product hierarchy), the batch-processing program may allow reconciliation of item and group-level forecasts. For details and relevant software programs, see Tashman and Hoover (2001).